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Circularity challenges the current economic model towards a sustainable future

Circular processes contributing to circularity can be grouped into 4 categories, from the most impactful to the least:
1. Reduce by design: reducing the amount of material used, particularly raw material, should be applied as an overall guiding principle from the earliest stages of design of products and services
2. From a user-to-user perspective: Refuse, Reduce and Re-use
3. From a user-to-business intermediary perspective: Repair, Refurbish and Remanufacture
4. From business-to-business: Repurpose and Recycle.

Read more about circularity at UNEP's Building Circularity platform.


  • Academic article
    Rethinking chemistry for a circular economy

    Rethinking chemistry for a circular economy

    Chemical complexity complicates product recycling and manufacturing sustainability

    Read More
  • Website
    Building Circularity Platform

    Building Circularity Platform

    The UNEP circularity platform provides an understanding of the circularity concept, its scope and how it contributes to promoting sustainable consumption and production patterns. It also offers a wide range of resources and features stories illustrating how various stakeholders have successfully adopted circular approaches.

    Read More