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Strengthen the capacities of human and natural systems to cope, adapt and reorganise—in other words, to become more resilient.

Shocks and stresses from climate change, environmental degradation, rapid demographic shifts and conflict are placing unprecedented pressures on ecosystems and livelihoods, potentially overwhelming existing capacities to respond. We believe that building resilience requires flexibility, diversity, and redundancy so that ecological, social and economic systems are better able to withstand and adjust to change. It also means promoting transparency, inclusiveness and equity so that risks, and the resources needed to manage them, are distributed in a more balanced way between people, places and generations. Learning and innovation are also critical, so that past mistakes are not repeated and new ways of maintaining or transforming systems are explored.